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Anatoly Uvarov
Anatoly Uvarov

Evaluate Homework And Practice Key

Of these purposes, the most valuable in producing measurable academic gains is practice for the purpose ofbuilding proficiency, maintaining mastery or both. This is not to say that the other purposes lack legitimacy.However, in existing studies, it is evident that when homework is used to build fluency and maintain proficiency,student performance is most positively affected.

evaluate homework and practice key

Practice can be provided via homework in two ways, single-skill or cumulative. Single-skill assignments are appropriate when students are mastering the taught skill itself; cumulative assignments are valuable whenstudents are learning to determine which skill to use and then applying it. The example about teaching a mathalgorithm is a single-skill format. If the assigned homework included the newly learned algorithm alongwith some previously learned skill, it would be considered cumulative.Cumulative practice is critical for skill maintenance and is included in anymodel of effective teaching practices. Skill maintenance is especially difficultfor students with LD.

A critical idea here is that the student must have demonstrated competence in theskill being practiced before being asked to do it independently (i.e., as homework).Research indicates students should be able to perform a skill at 90% accuracybefore it should be assigned as homework for independent practice.

Researchers have examined homework in many different ways. In addition toassessing what homework practices are beneficial, they have been able to describe how and when homeworkis assigned. Here are some important facts about homework that one can learn from the research literature.

Historically, individualization has been integral to effective education for students with Learning Disabilities.However, homework has been neglected as an area warranting individualization, especially for students servedin inclusive settings. Studies show general education teachers and students accept modifications for studentswith Learning Disabilities for many areas of instruction (e.g., testing modifications), but when it comes tohomework, they are less accepting of individualization.

However, the result of not individualizing homeworkcan be devastating. Indeed, if students are assigned a task they are unable to complete independently or thattakes them inordinate amounts of time to complete, the probability of their attempting the task is greatlyreduced and they run the risk of practicing errors with serious consequences. Therefore, not individualizinghomework is not an effective practice. Other ineffective practices are listed in the table below.

Research has also provided direction about some practices that are especially beneficial. Teachers of studentswith Learning Disabilities probably should employ these practices, as they are likely both to help the studentacquire the content or skills being learned as well as help students to complete homework in the future. Forteachers collaborating with colleagues in general education settings, these are practices that probably shouldbe promoted. Effective homework practices are listed in the table below.

Hughes, C. A., Ruhl, K. L., Schumaker, J. B., & Deshler, D. D. (2002). Effects of instruction in anassignment completion strategy on the homework performance of students with learning disabilitiesin general education classes. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 17, 1-18.

O'Melia, M. C., & Rosenberg, M. S. (1994). Effects of cooperative homework teams on the acquisition ofmathematics skills by secondary students with mild disabilities. Exceptional Children, 60, 538-548.

Polloway, E. A., Foley, R. M., & Epstein, M. H. (1992). A comparison of the homework problems ofstudents with learning disabilities and nonhandicapped students. Learning Disabilities Researchand Practice, 7, 203-209.

Putnam, M. L., Deshler, D. D., & Schumaker, J. B. (1993). The investigation of setting demands: A missinglink in learning strategy instruction. In L. Meltzer (Ed.), Strategy assessment and instruction forstudents with learning disabilities: From theory to practice (pp. 325-354). Austin, TX: PRO-ED.

Technology can help students organize and clarify assignments.One low-tech solution is to try a homework/travel folder. Bykeeping all take-home papers in one place, students caught up inthe end-of-the-day rush are less likely to leave important papersat school. Create a "To-Do" pocket for new notes and homework anda "Done" pocket for completed assignments, signed report cards orquizzes, notes from parents, and so on. Once a week, parentsshould encourage their children to clean out their travelfolders, filing work at home.

Many higher-tech solutions, too, can help students organizetheir homework and school communications. For example theAlphasmart Pro 2000 (Intelligent Peripheral Devices 408-252-9400)is portable text input device. Text can be entered into eightdifferent files, each accessed by a function key. This simpledevice is very durable. Students can record homework assignmentsfor each class in a different file and teachers can type messagesfor the parents as well. For children who use communicationdevices, a button or two can be left for parents and teachers tocommunicate with each other and track assignments.

Technology can also play a vital role at home by ensuring thechild has the ability to do the homework. Working with the schoolon accessible homework is very important. Programs such asAccess Math ( Don Johnston, 1-800-999-4660) allow theteacher to create math worksheets that students can complete onthe computer. Teachers who use this method of creating homeworkcan adjust the number of problems and the difficulty. Studentswho can access the assignment on the computer then have manyinput options, such as switches or alternative keyboards.

The following short class activities can be used to give students practice with the strategies discussed in the Informed Voting video and handout on the Citizen Literacy website. The activities are designed to be adapted to different disciplinary contexts as well as different learning environments (face-to-face, online, hybrid).

In the Netherlands, all inhabitants are enlisted with a GP and have an open and unlimited access to the GP. The GP performs a gatekeeper function which enables him to control access to specialist health care. First line psychologists (FLP) are operating in PC and are often connected to the practices of the GP. They offer generalized psychological care, mostly after referral of a GP, and are easily accessible.

The minimum frequency is one contact every two weeks during the first six weeks and one telephonic contact and one face- to- face evaluation contact during the second 6 week period. This can be increased if needed. Reasons for more contacts can be for instance: the severity of the complaints and/or lack of social support. After the first six weeks the GP evaluates, together with the patient, the need and frequency for further contacts. If recovery is not sufficient, according to the patient and/or GP, the GP will offer further contacts, during which problem solving will be a key element. If recovery is substantial the GP will provide information on relapse prevention and will offer contacts by telephone during the next month and one face-to- face contact after six weeks.


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