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Anatoly Uvarov
Anatoly Uvarov

MQTT Essentials - A Lightweight IoT Protocol


In this chapter, we will start our journey towards the usage of the preferred IoT publish-subscribe lightweight messaging protocol in diverse IoT solutions combined with mobile apps and web applications. We will learn how MQTT and its lightweight messaging system work. We will learn MQTT basics, the specific vocabulary for MQTT, and its working modes. We will use different utilities and diagrams to understand the most important concepts related to MQTT. We will:




MQTT Essentials - A Lightweight IoT Protocol



The MQTT protocol is a Machine-to-Machine (M2M) and IoT connectivity protocol. MQTT is a lightweight messaging protocol that works with a broker-based publish-subscribe mechanism and runs on top of Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP).


The previous command will create an MQTT client that will establish a connection with the local MQTT server and then will make the client subscribe to the topic specified after the -t option: sensors/drone01/altitude. We specify the version of the MQTT protocol that we want to use when the client establishes the connection with -V mqttv311. This way, we indicate the MQTT server that we want to use MQTT version 3.1.1. We specify the -d option to enable debug messages that will allow us to understand what happens under the hoods. We will analyze additional options for the connection and the subscription later.


The previous command will create an MQTT client that will establish a connection with the local MQTT server and then will make the client publish a message to the topic specified after the -t option: sensors/drone01/altitude. We specify the payload for the message after the -m option: "10 f". We specify the version of the MQTT protocol that we want to use when the client establishes the connection with -V mqttv311. This way, we indicate the MQTT server that we want to use MQTT version 3.1.1. We specify the -d option to enable debug messages that will allow us to understand what happens under the hoods. We will analyze additional options for the connection and the publication later.


This step-by-step guide will help you gain a deep understanding of the lightweight MQTT protocol. We'll begin with the specific vocabulary of MQTT and its working modes, followed by installing a Mosquitto MQTT broker. Then, you will use best practices to secure the MQTT Mosquitto broker to ensure that only authorized clients are able to publish and receive messages. Once you have secured the broker with the appropriate configuration, you will develop a solution that controls a drone with Python.


Andy Stanford-Clark (IBM) and Arlen Nipper (then working for Eurotech, Inc.) authored the first version of the protocol in 1999.[4] It was used to monitor oil pipelines within the SCADA industrial control system.[5] The goal was to have a protocol that is bandwidth-efficient, lightweight and uses little battery power, because the devices were connected via satellite link which, at that time, was extremely expensive.[6]


Eclipse Kanto is optimized for complex IoT edge devices facing limited hardware resources, (near) real-time requirements, diverse device software, heterogeneous data sources and the ability to operate without connection. The project can run various automotive and industrial hardware like vehicle computers, connected building gateways, industrial controllers and more. Eclipse Kanto is based on lightweight native components, open protocols and standard containers that ensure availability on hardware, minimum integration work, reduced complexity, rapid prototyping, and scalable applications. 041b061a72


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